[MARINE_BIOLOGY_INTERNATIONAL] Global Conservation Priorities for Marine Turtles


Washington. DC — Marine turtles worldwide are vulnerable and endangered, but their long lives and broad distribution make it difficult for scientists to accurately determine the threat level to different populations and devise appropriate conservation strategies. To address this concern, researchers have developed a new method to evaluate spatially and biologically distinct groups of marine turtles, called Regional Management Units, or RMUs, to identify threats and data gaps at different scales.

The results are reported September 28 in the online journal PLoS ONE. In their analysis, the researchers identified 11 out of the 58 worldwide turtle RMUs that are most at risk. Of these 11, five reside in the Indian Ocean, four in the Pacific, and two in the Atlantic. Populations of four of the seven total species of marine turtle are included in this most threatened group.

The researchers suggest that these results should be used to help set conservation priorities. Furthermore, this approach is flexible and can also be used to assess other widely distributed taxa to generate a portfolio of conservation priorities that reflect the diversity of conservation needs associated with variation among different populations of a single species.

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[forensic-science] Wording of Serology Reports


My laboratory is on the cusp of revamping our Serology SOP and the way that we word some of our serology testing on our final reports. I know that the "word of the day" when it comes to ISO, which is where most of us are headed, is TRANSPARENCY. Nothing would make me happier and more comfortable as a forensic scientist to be able to go to court, clearly state what tests were used, and openly show/explain their limitations. Anyone that has read about the North Carolina debaucle understands that a scientist's report, despite their best intentions AND following proper protocol, can be grossly misinterpreted without them personally being present to explain it and in turn, ruin their career in forensics.
Anyhow, several of my coworkers are facing some resistance by administration when it comes to how we report out semen testing and what "weight" we give to these tests in regard to probative value. Let me also say that we were getting false (+)'s with ABAcard psa on known semen-free samples. Their was some discussion about temperature, pH, and viscosity issues that could cause these results. Due to these issues, we switched to Seratec's product. I will also state that our DNA section does tell the end of the story many times by stating whether foreign DNA is present in our swabbings and cuttings which is a small comfort to us serologists, but that sometimes, the mere reporting of semen being present is all it takes for a jury to convict, even if DNA is not obtained. I am trying to poll other forensic laboratories to see how you guys report out the following testing so that I can attend our next brainstorming meeting with some possible suggestions:
1) Spermatozoa identified
2) No Spermatozoa identified, (+) p30 result
3) No Spermatozoa identified, (-) p30 result
4) No Spermatozoa identified, p30 result(test line intensity is lighter than internal standard of 4 ng/mL)

For 1), we currently write "Semen was identified on.....".
For 2), we currently write "Semen was identified on.....".
For 3), we currently write "No semen was found on....".
For 4), we currently write "Tests for the presence of semen were inconclusive.".

Sadly, our current protocol dictates that if our test line is (+) or less intense than the internal standard, we must repeat the test with another p30 card of the same lot # (I don't see this as sound scientific practice). If the second test is also (+), we follow 1) wording as above. If the second test is (-), we are told to write "No semen was found on..." (I don't agree with this.) I know that Seratec is very sensitive. The manufacturer clearly shows examples of fainter lines being still interpreted as (+) for p30. I also know that the test line, results being based on a bell curve of concentration, may be fainter because there's low quantities of p30 OR very high quantities, approaching the high-dose hook effect level which would give you a false (-).
Do any other laboratories interpret these faint lines as anything other than (+)? Does your lab call this (+) for p30, a component of semen OR (+) for semen?

Do your reports give disclaimers about p30 being found in low levels of other body fluids?

Lastly, does your laboratory consider p30 testing to be sensitive/specific enough to be called a confirmatory test for semen? Ours has for years and doesn't want to even consider backing off on report wording to view it as presumptive, which many of us feel is imperative. There was some talk of describing it as "indicitive," but that is what the poor soul in North Carolina used and we all know how that turned out for him! We're all of the "worst-case scenario" mindset and fear one day, major consequences could befall our laboratory or us analysts though we are following SOP as set forth and attempting to remain subordinate to our superiors.
I know I've rambled for a lengthy spell here, but we've got a burden on our shoulders that needs resolution. Misinterpretation of data is not an acceptable answer for me. I don't see anywhere on Seratec's website where they consider any type of line in the Test area to be anything but (+). That is the bottom line. My signature on a laboratory report means something to me and I don't want it to lose its value.

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[MARINE_BIOLOGY_INTERNATIONAL] Study Uncovers a Predictable Sequence Toward Coral Reef Collapse


Sydney, NSW — Coral reefs that have lots of corals and appear healthy may, in fact, be heading toward collapse, according to a study published by the Wildlife Conservation Society and other groups.

Using data from coral reef systems across the western Indian Ocean, an international team of researchers identified how overfishing creates a series of at least eight big changes on reefs that precipitate a final collapse. This information can help managers gauge the health of a reef and tell them when to restrict fishing in order to avoid a collapse of the ecosystem and fishery.

The study appears this week in the early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The authors of the study include: Tim R. McClanahan and Nyawira A. Muthiga of the Wildlife Conservation Society; Nicholas A.J. Graham and Joshua E. Cinner of James Cook University, Queensland, Australia; M. Aaron MacNeil of the Australian Institute of Marine Science; J. Henrich Bruggemann of Laboratoire d'Ecologie Marine, Université de la Réunion, La Réunion, France; and Shaun K. Wilson of the Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth, Western Australia.

The authors say these changes are like a series of light switches, each of which make the reef more degraded and dims the chances of sustained fishery production and recovery.

"The study identifies eight changes before all of the ecological lights go off and the reef and fishery are gone" said Dr. McClanahan, the lead author on the study and the head of WCS's coral reef research and conservation program.

The study shows that in well-protected areas, there are typically 1000-1500 kilograms of reef fish of various species per hectare of coral reef. As the volume is fished down below 1000 kilograms, the early warning signs -- like increased seaweed growth and urchin activity -- begin to appear. The researchers found that between 300-600 kilograms per hectare, there appeared to be a "window" of what is known as maximum sustainable yield, but when the fish stock drops below 300 kilograms per hectare, the reef is in real trouble, they said.

"Below 300 kilograms per hectare we see a series of dramatic changes on reefs. This is where you get on a real slippery slope," McClanahan noted. "Strangely, the metric used by most managers to gauge the health of reef systems -- coral cover -- is the last threshold before ecosystem failure. Overfished reefs can appear healthy and then shift to algae dominated seascapes."

The authors recommend measuring the biomass of fish instead of coral cover to identify the early warning rather than the final sign of reef collapse.

"The good news is that a reef can likely provide sustainable fisheries even after the first three warning switches are turned off, but it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain a healthy fishery and restore reefs when the final five switches have been turned off," said Dr. McClanahan. "This study provides managers and policy makers with a tangible target of where to maintain their fishery."

Dr. Joshua Cinner from James Cook University in Australia added: "Of course, having a target is one thing, but achieving it is, well, another kettle of fish. So we also assessed how well different reef management schemes did at maintaining reefs."

Reef fisheries with no regulations tended to perform poorly, with some passing all the switches and completely collapsing. No-take marine reserves, where fishing was prohibited, were the best performers and tended to maintain key ecosystem processes such as predation.

"People depend on reefs for their livelihoods, so we can't prohibit fishing everywhere," noted Dr. Cinner. "A key finding from our study was that even easily enforceable regulations that restrict gear or the types of species that can be caught helped maintain biomass. These regulations are often more agreeable to fishermen than no-take closures and consequently receive higher levels of support and compliance."

"There is no one size fits all solution to save the world's coral reef ecosystems. To be politically and socially sustainable, tangible and objective management targets are critical to help managers make difficult near-term decisions of restricting or altering fishing practices for long-term social and ecological gain," said Dr. Caleb McClennen, Director of WCS's Marine Program. "This exhaustive research helps identify critical metrics and methods for sustainable management of coral reefs across the true gradient of ecological condition and management reality."

From Fiji to Kenya to Glover's Reef, Dr. McClanahan's research has been examining the ecology, fisheries, climate change effects, and management of coral reefs at key sites throughout the world. This work has been supported by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and The Tiffany & Co. Foundation.

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[MARINE_BIOLOGY_INTERNATIONAL] Jellyfish clog waters for fishermen in Gulf of Mexico


"If it's not one thing, it's something else. I'd
rather deal with jellyfish than oil," he said in
a reference to the 2010 BP oil spill.


I don't think Kenny thought about this much before
making that comment.

Jellyfish are becoming an increasingly enormous
problem in our oceans and I'm surprised our
politicians haven't noticed this.

Anyone watch the story about jelly fish
on natgeowild last night ?

It seems like we are all on the titanic and our
politicians are all arguing about where we should
place the deckchairs.

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copyrighted material whose use has not been specifically
authorized by the copyright owners. I believe that
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constitutes a fair use of the copyrighted material
(as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law).
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of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain
permission from the copyright owner.

Bill Zardus
Delaware County, PA

Jellyfish clog waters for fishermen in Gulf of Mexico
By Kelli Dugan
MOBILE, Ala | Tue Sep 20, 2011 3:24pm EDT

MOBILE, Ala (Reuters) - Last year it was oil.
This year it is jellyfish.

Fishermen and shrimpers along the Alabama and
Mississippi coasts say their efforts are being
hampered by a blanket of jellyfish clogging the
waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico.

A year ago the same fishermen were dealing with
the after-effects of the BP oil spill, the biggest
offshore oil spill in U.S. history.

Tropical weather might have eased the congestion
a bit, but marine experts say jellyfish-clogged
waters could put a damper on fishing and shrimping
into the winter.

The bloom of thousands of moon jellyfish with their
tell-tale clover pattern on their bodies has almost
completely halted business in the past three weeks for
fisherman and bait shop owner Harry Jemison.

"I catch bait, so they're stopping me right now,"
said Jemison, whose family has operated Jemison's
Bait and Tackle in the Heron Bay Cutoff area near
Coden, Alabama for 67 years.

"It's just like a thunderstorm or a hurricane," he
said on Tuesday. "It's all part of living in God's
world down here."

How long the jellyfish will stick around is hard
to pin down, said William "Monty" Graham, who leads
the University of Southern Mississippi's marine
science department.

Researchers discovered only recently that the
umbrella-shaped, dinner plate-sized creatures
tend to flourish in eight to 10-year cycles,
he said. The current swarm is in about the third
year of the latest cycle.

Graham said the duration of the bloom depends
primarily on water temperatures and storm activity.

Tropical Storm Lee's prolonged churning in the gulf
in early September helped open the waters a bit.

Two years ago, a similar fall blanket of moon
jellyfish in the northern gulf "kind of ate up the
entire white shrimp fishing season," Graham said.

"The problem we had two years ago was that (the
blooms) lasted until the end of December. They
usually peak around September and are gone by
November, but if (the weather) stays quiet and the
water stays warm, I suspect they'll stick around,"
he said.

Fowl River, Alabama fisherman David Caldwell said
he remembers all too well how bad things got during
the last peak.

"When you can't hardly get your nets into the water,
it's not even worth it to go out some days," Caldwell
said. "I'm not saying it's that bad yet, but if it
doesn't cool off soon it could be, and I can't afford
to miss too many hauls."

The biggest concern posed by jellyfish swarms is
their long-term impact on fisheries management,
said Graham, whose research focuses on the role
jellyfish and other gelatinous plankton play in
heavily fished ecosystems.

"We harvest pretty close to the margins of what
the stocks can yield and still be able to replenish
themselves, so any time you put a lot of pressure
on early-life stages -- the egg and larvae stages
-- you potentially impact the stock down the road,"
he said.

"We're just not sure how far down the road that
impact might be realized."

The impact will vary by fish species, he said.
Anchovies, for instance, are plentiful in the
waters off of Alabama and Mississippi and have
extended, frequent spawning seasons. Their
numbers might not be affected at the same rate
as red fish, which only spawn during the fall
and are already recovering from the impact of

For Kenny Beausarge, a third-generation shrimper
from the Bayou La Batre area of Alabama, the
jellyfish blooms have been more of an annoyance
than an obstacle.

"If it's not one thing, it's something else. I'd
rather deal with jellyfish than oil," he said in
a reference to the 2010 BP oil spill.

(Editing by Colleen Jenkins and Greg McCune)

------------- End Of Story -------------

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[MARINE_BIOLOGY_INTERNATIONAL] Fish Uses Tool to Dig Up and Crush Clams


Ssnta Cruz, CA — The first video of tool use by a fish has been published in the journal Coral Reefs by Giacomo Bernardi, professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of California, Santa Cruz.

In the video, an orange-dotted tuskfish digs a clam out of the sand, carries it over to a rock, and repeatedly throws the clam against the rock to crush it. Bernardi shot the video in Palau in 2009.

"What the movie shows is very interesting. The animal excavates sand to get the shell out, then swims for a long time to find an appropriate area where it can crack the shell," Bernardi said. "It requires a lot of forward thinking, because there are a number of steps involved. For a fish, it's a pretty big deal."

The actions recorded in the video are remarkably similar to previous reports of tool use by fish. Every case has involved a species of wrasse using a rock as an anvil to crush shellfish. A report published in June in Coral Reefs included photos of this behavior in a blackspot tuskfish on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Bernardi said he first heard of the phenomenon in 1994, when a colleague (James Coyer) observed a yellowhead wrasse in Florida doing the same thing. Similar behavior was also reported in a sixbar wrasse in an aquarium setting.

"Wrasses are very inquisitive animals," Bernardi said. "They are all carnivorous, and they are very sensitive to smell and vision."

Wrasses are one of the largest and most diverse families of marine fishes. Bernardi noted that several of the species observed using tools are not closely related, but cover a broad range of evolutionary history within the wrasse family. "They are at opposite ends of the phylogenetic tree, so this may be a deep-seated behavioral trait in all wrasses," he said.

Tool use was once considered an exclusively human trait, and Jane Goodall's reports of tool use in chimpanzees in the 1960s came as a stunning revelation. Since then, many other animals have been observed using tools, including various primates, several kinds of birds, dolphins, elephants, and other animals.

Bernardi, who studies fish genetics, said there may be other examples of tool use in fish that have not yet been observed. "We don't spend that much time underwater observing fishes," he said. "It may be that all wrasses do this. It happens really quickly, so it would be easy to miss."

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A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases <http://www.isid.org>

Date: Sun 25 Sep 2011
Source: The Sunday Mail (QL) [edited]

The commercial fishermen who blew the whistle on what they call an environmental disaster in Gladstone Harbour say dead fish will soon wash up on its shores. They insist sick, blind, and ulcerated fish were being pulled out of the harbour for months ahead of last week's [week of 19 Sep 2011] official ban by the State Government.

Operators say they were working alongside Queensland Fisheries officers, who were monitoring possible turtle kills, when they dragged sick and slime-covered fish from waters around Gladstone Harbour. The fishermen say the Government acted only after it was presented with an ultimatum a fortnight ago that they would go public with their concerns. The ban was slapped on 24 hours later.

A dozen fishermen have reported being ill from handling the fish, along with the pregnant wife of a deckhand and their 2 young children exposed when they met their dad when his boat was pulled ashore.

At least 2 of the fishermen have spent time in hospital, including a Tannum Sands operator who spent 5 days on a drip. He said fishermen had no option but to act, fearing children would be exposed to the toxins during the school holidays. "I couldn't walk," [the man] said.
"I spent 5 nights in the Mater Hospital in Gladstone. It cost AUD 5800 [about USD 5653]. My foot was flaming red. I had a temperature of 39 deg C [102.2 deg F]."

On Friday [23 Sep 2011], Fisheries Queensland released findings that the dead fish had been attacked by a mystery parasitic fluke that was sending them blind. They were also suffering from red spot, a disease usually found in Queensland waters after the 1st heavy rains of summer or during lean winter times.

But the cause of the outbreak was yet to be confirmed. Fisheries Queensland's Dr John Robertson said red spot disease could develop into burn-like marks, or ulcers with red centres. He said more research was needed into the parasite, which affected the eye of the fish. "We now know that this parasite is what has been causing the cloudy eyes in some barramundi in the area," he said.

Additional testing is being conducted on new samples of other fish species, prawns, and mud crabs but results are not expected for several weeks. Until then, the fishing ban remains.

A 4th-generation fisherman believed dredging was to blame. He said the fish were fine in clear reef water but became stressed as they approached Gladstone Harbour. Once in the port, they "roll" - die and go belly-up. "We are devastated at the situation here in Gladstone but we know that we have done all the right things to advise all government authorities to keep people safe," he said.

Queensland Seafood Industry Association president Michael Gardner said the dead turtles, dugongs, and fish found in the Gladstone area were "an environmental disaster." He said the sick and dead animals coincided with dredging by Gladstone Port Corporation working on the massive LNG plant and pipeline being built in the harbour.

But the port corporation says they are not to blame. Chief executive officer Leo Zussino said dredging was tightly controlled. He said the sick seafood had been fished out of the harbour before dredging began.
The corporation says the harbour has been dredged in the past without any impact on fish. Instead, it blames fresh water from the floods earlier this year [2011] hurting marine life.

Mr Zussino said the dredging had not stirred up contaminants because testing showed there were none on the harbour floor. "A lot of people say there's been contamination in Gladstone Harbour for a century.
That's simply not true," he said.

[Byline: Daniel Knowles]

Communicated by:

[Red spot disease [Epizotic Ulcerative Syndrome is quite a serious ulcerative disease of many (more than 100) species of freshwater and estuarine fish. The causative agent of red spot disease is a fungus, _Aphanomyces invadans_. The scenario described appears to be more complex than just a red spot disease outbreak in fish. Red spot disease outbreaks are associated with stress. There is also mention of environmental disruption and die-offs of other unrelated species, i.e.
dugongs (mammals) and turtles (reptilians) (see <http://news.ninemsn.com.au/national/8352059/turtles-and-dugongs-die-in-droves-derm>).
The whole ecosystem health appears to be compromised. Human health hazards from red spot disease outbreaks are related to secondary bacterial infections.

Regarding the undiagnosed parasite, if they are trematodes (flukes), they might be zoonotic (humans and animals acquire these fish-borne zoonotic trematodes infection through consumption of raw, inadequately cooked fished that harbor infective etacercariae stages), but the disease they cause does not match the report description, besides apparently the fishermen became sick from handling the fish, not eating them. - Mod.PMB]

[see also:
Epizootic ulcerative synd., fish - Australia: (QL) 20110925.2908 Epizootic ulcerative synd., fish - Canada: corr. 20110330.0983 Epizootic ulcerative synd., fish - Canada 20110326.0952] .................................................pmb/mj/pmb/lm/ll
ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted or archived material.

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[MARINE_BIOLOGY_INTERNATIONAL] Red tide detected near Manasota Beach


Red tide detected near Manasota Beach

By Kate Spinner
Herald Tribune

Published: Tuesday, September 27, 2011 at 6:44 p.m.

ENGLEWOOD - For the first time in more than four years, Sarasota County may be facing an outbreak of red tide, the noxious algae that kills fish and causes respiratory irritation in people.

Water quality samples taken recently by Sarasota County in partnership with Mote Marine Laboratory showed elevated concentrations of the algae near Manasota Beach and near Venice and Englewood beaches, according to data released late Tuesday.

Whether the elevated concentrations are an isolated blip or signs of a larger red tide bloom was unclear Tuesday evening. More sampling will continue this week, according to a routine red tide report issued by state wildlife officials.

Red tide algae contain neurotoxins that get released into the water and air when the algae die. The poisons kill fish, sea turtles and marine mammals.

Severe red tides can make people on the beach cough and wheeze when winds blow onshore.

Zoe Bass, who monitors sea turtle nests on Manasota Key, said she has noticed many small, dead fish lately on the northern part of the key. She said she had suspected red tide because they seemed to be washing ashore alive, as though escaping a bloom.

Bass also said other turtle volunteers reported several dead birds recently.

Very small amounts of red tide algae were measured in mid-July and early August in Sarasota Bay and near New Pass, but the presence of the algae was not widespread or persistent enough to warrant concern.

The last time Sarasota County experienced red tide was 2006. Collier and Lee counties have had some minor red tide blooms since.

Red tides move by currents and wind.

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[MARINE_BIOLOGY_INTERNATIONAL] Dolphins found upriver in Australia


(the chronicle, australia)

Dolphin research proves astonishing
27th September 2011

RESEARCH into the feeding habits, movement and population numbers of dolphins at Tweed Heads has revealed astonishing results.

Dolphin researcher Amanda Peterson said at least two species of dolphin are travelling up the Tweed River as far as Murwillumbah to feed, displaying behaviour that is uncharacteristic of their species and of their fellow dolphins inhabiting waters further north.

"We are finding Indo Pacific Bottle Nose and Indo Pacific Hump Backs in turbid waters far upstream," Ms Peterson said.

"This is very unusual, as the species usually inhabit less turbid water with higher salinity.

"It's interesting that this is their preferred habitat," Ms Peterson said.

Ms Peterson's research is run through the Southern Cross University and is the first of its kind at Tweed Heads.

Research involves tracking the movement patterns of dolphins and their population numbers.

Studies include water analysis to see what type of water the dolphins prefer.

Ms Peterson is assisted by Marine Science students from SCU Michael Manley and Josh Aschmann.

"Primary research on the complex ecology of Tweed waterways and local species is vital in planning their future management," Mr Manley said.

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A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases <http://www.isid.org>

Date: Mon 26 Sep 2011
Source: Los Angeles Times [edited]

The USA FDA on Monday afternoon, 26 Sep 2011, warned consumers not to eat oysters harvested from Washington State's Hood Canal Area 4 between 30 Aug 2011 and 19 Sep 2011. The oysters are suspected of carrying _Vibrio parahaemolyticus_, and are believed to be the cause of an outbreak of illness in as many as 5 consumers to date.

The oysters that are subject to the warning have been distributed to
23 states and several countries. The states are Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia, Utah, and Washington. They also went out to China, Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan.

Meanwhile, Area 4 of Hood Canal has been closed to shellfish harvesting.

_Vibrio parahaemolyticus_ belongs to the same family of bacteria as that which causes cholera, and although very rarely fatal, it can cause abdominal cramps and gastrointestinal distress for 1 to 3 days.
The bacterium thrives in coastal salt waters, and under certain conditions of salinity and temperature, will infect seafood harvested from those areas

[Byline: Melissa Healy]

Communicated by:

[The alert regarding oysters potentially containing _V.
parahaemolyticus_ has been expanded as the Canal Area 4 oysters were distributed to 23 states in the USA and 4 Asian countries. ProMED-mail awaits information regarding cases in the states and/or countries where the bivalve molluscs were distributed. - Mod.LL]

[A HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of the US can be seen at <http://healthmap.org/r/1hwV>. - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]

[see also:
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA (03): (WA) alert 20110915.2820 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA (02): (CA) 20110913.2786 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA: (WA) 20110807.2394 2010
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA: (WA) 20100803.2604
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, seafood - Chile 20081223.4041 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA: (MD ex NJ) 20080821.2608
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA (WA): int'l alert
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shellfish - Chile: 2005 20070321.0991 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shellfish - Chile (San Antonio)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shellfish - USA (multistate) (03)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shellfish - USA (multistate) 20060807.2211 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shellfish - USA (WA, NY) (05) 20060805.2175 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shellfish - USA (WA, NY) 20060721.1999 Vibrio parahaemolyticus - North America: background 20060717.1963 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - North America: USA (OR, WA), Canada
(BC) 20060716.1956
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, seafood - Chile (Puerto Montt) (03)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, seafood - Chile (Puerto Montt) 20050118.0163
Food poisoning, birthday guests - USA (FL) (02): vibrio parahaemolyticus 20040927.2664 Food poisoning, birthday guests - USA (FL) 20040922.2619 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA (AK) (02) 20040822.2335 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA (AK) 20040803.2113
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shellfish - USA (NY): alert 20020822.5111 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, O3:K6 - USA, Asia 20020716.4770 2000
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA (Texas) 20000928.1676
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, oysters - USA (multistate) 19990725.1252] .................................................ll/mj /lm
ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted or archived material.

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